What is Colloidal Gold Used For?
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Roche and its subsidiary TIB Molbiol have developed a series of tests for the detection of the monkeypox virus, the Switzerland-based pharmaceutical company announced.
The monkeypox virus is a close relative of the smallpox virus, belonging to orthpoxviridae in the poxviridae family.
The modular virus detection tool, called LightMix, includes three orthpoxvirus detection kits with different functions, Roche said in a statement. The first kit detects orthpoxvirus; The second kit tests only for monkeypox virus (west and Central African branches); The third kit contains the main functions of the first two kits, showing specific information on the presence of the monkeypox virus (west and Central African branches) as well as the detection of orpoxvirus.
Thomas Schinek, a Roche executive, said the new test could detect monkeypox and help track its spread. Such diagnostic tools are critical for addressing and ultimately managing emerging public health challenges, as they advance responses such as tracking efforts and treatment strategies.
The monkeypox virus was first identified in 1958 in a group of monkeys used for research when the animals developed a "pox-like" infection, hence the name. Since May, several non-endemic countries have reported human cases of the monkeypox virus, including the United Kingdom, the United States, Portugal, Spain, and Italy.
Affected by the ever-changing international situation, the supply and prices of international bulk colloidal gold are still very uncertain.
In cancer research, colloidal gold can be used to target tumors and detected in vivo using SERS (Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy). Surrounded by Raman reporter molecules, the gold nanoparticles emit light 200 times brighter than quanta. It found that Raman molecules were stabilized when nanoparticles were coated with a mercaptan modified polyethylene glycol coating. This allows compatibility and circulation in the body. To specifically target tumor cells, pegylated gold particles are conjugated with antibody (or antibody) fragments, such as scFv, that target, for example, the epidermal growth factor receptor, which is sometimes overexpressed in cells of certain cancer types. Using SERS, these pegylated gold nanoparticles were able to detect tumor locations.
Gold nanoparticles accumulate in tumors due to leakage of tumor vasculature and can be used as contrast agents to enhance imaging in time-resolved optical tomography systems using short pulsed lasers for skin cancer detection in mouse models. The spherical gold nanoparticles applied widened the time distribution of the reflected light signal and enhanced the contrast between the surrounding normal tissue and the tumor.
Gold nanoparticles in chemotherapy and radiation therapy are colloidal gold used in therapy, usually for cancer or arthritis. Gold nanoparticles show promise in advances in cancer treatment. Some properties of gold nanoparticles, such as their small size, non-toxicity and non-immunogenicity, make these molecules useful candidates for targeted drug delivery systems. Using tumor-targeted delivery vectors becomes smaller and the ability to bypass the body's natural barriers and obstacles becomes more possible. To increase the specificity and likelihood of drug delivery, tumor-specific ligands can be transplanted to particles along with chemotherapeutic drug molecules to allow these molecules to circulate throughout the tumor without redistributing into the body.
Gold nanoparticles have shown potential as intracellular delivery vectors for siRNA oligonucleotides with the greatest therapeutic impact.
Gold nanoparticles have shown potential as intracellular delivery vectors for antisense oligonucleotides (single- and double-stranded DNA) by providing protection against intracellular nucleases and easily targeted functionalization.
Gold nanoparticles are incorporated into biosensors to enhance their stability, sensitivity and selectivity. Nanoparticle properties such as small size, high surface volume ratio and high surface energy can immobilize a wide range of biomolecules. In particular, gold nanoparticles can act as "electron wires" to transmit electrons, amplifying electromagnetic light so that they can act as signal amplifiers. The main types of biosensors based on gold nanoparticles are optical and electrochemical biosensors.
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At present, international supply chains were shocked, and logistics and transportation efficiency decreases. Geopolitical conflicts further aggravate uncertainties about the European and American economic recovery and the global commodity supply. For this reason, I assume the price of the colloidal gold would not decrease significantly in the short term.