Guotai Junan released a research report saying that under the background of carbon neutrality, the scarcity of coal mines is prominent, and the value of assets will continue to increase. The high point of capital expenditure in the coal industry appeared in 2012. Under the general direction of carbon neutrality, the overall investment in the industry has slowed down, and capital expenditure has gradually declined. From 2021 to now, the Energy Bureau of the National Development and Reform Commission has only newly approved 17.4 million tons of nitride powder.
Nitrides are binary compounds of nitrogen with other elements, including metallic nitrides, nonmetallic nitrides, and ammonia (which is customarily excluded from nitrides as a special substance).
Metal nitrides are compounds of metal elements with nitrogen. Most of them are insoluble in water, high thermal stability, can be used as high temperature insulating materials, such as titanium nitride, tantalum nitride, vanadium nitride and so on. A few are hydrolyzed completely in water to form metal hydroxide and release ammonia, such as magnesium nitride, aluminum nitride and so on.
Many metal nitride and non-metal nitride have high hardness, high melting point, high chemical stability, wear resistance, corrosion resistance and other characteristics. The hardness of some of these nitrides, such as cubic boron nitride and wurtzite boron nitride, has approached or even exceeded that of diamond. However, diamond cannot be widely used in many industrial fields because its carbon structure is unstable in high temperature environment, and it is easy to react with oxygen and combine with iron. Therefore, people focus on nitride.
Unlike oxides, most nitrides do not occur in nature but are synthetic products.
Aluminum nitride (AlN), for example, is a diamond-like nitride first synthesized in 1877. It can withstand 2200℃ high temperature, and the strength decreases slowly with the increase of temperature, has good thermal conductivity, thermal expansion coefficient is small, so it is a good heat resistant impact material. Aluminum nitride is an ideal crucible material for casting pure iron, aluminum or aluminum alloys because of its strong resistance to molten metal erosion. Aluminum nitride is also an electrical insulator with good dielectric properties and can be used as electrical components. It has high heat transfer ability and is widely used in microelectronic components. In addition, aluminum nitride is also used in optoelectronic engineering, including as an inducible layer in optical storage interfaces and electronic substrates, as a wafer carrier with high thermal conductivity, and for military applications.
For example, manganese nitride, as an alloy additive of nitrogen and manganese, is mainly used in the production of special alloy steel, high strength steel, stainless steel, heat-resistant steel and other products, especially in the transportation of oil and gas large diameter steel pipe and shipbuilding and automobile high strength steel, showing a good market prospect. Nitrogen can improve the strength and plasticity of steel, expand the austenite zone (austenite is a structure that can exist stably at a high temperature of more than 727℃, with special physical properties), refine grain, and improve machining performance. Manganese nitride can replace part of nickel to reduce the cost. It is characterized by high content of main elements, low content of harmful impurities such as phosphorus, and high utilization rate of nitrogen after adding into the melt.
At present, many metal nitrides have formed a series of products, including manganese nitride, vanadium nitrogen alloy (vanadium nitride, V(cN)), titanium and chromium nitride (Ti(cN), Cr(cN)), titanium nitride, gallium nitride, indium nitride and so on. The nanostructure of indium nitride is the basic material for developing related quantum devices.
There are also some important nonmetallic nitrides, such as boron nitride (BN), triphosphorus pentaitride (P3N5), trisilicon tetrachitride (Si3N4) and so on, their thermal stability is relatively high, each with its own characteristics.
Silicon nitride, especially hot-pressed silicon nitride, is one of the hardest substances in the world. It is very high-temperature resistant, and its strength can stay the same even under the high temperature of 1200℃. After heating it will not melt into a melt body, until 1900℃ it will decompose. It has amazing chemical-corrosion resistance properties, it is resistant to almost all inorganic acid and some caustic soda solution, also can withstand a lot of organic acid corrosion; It is also a kind of high performance electrical insulation material.
Cubic boron nitride is an excellent lubricant. Hexagonal boron nitride can be used to make turning tools and drills because of its high hardness. Silicon nitride, boron nitride, silicon nitride can also be used to produce high-performance ceramics.
Although wurtzite boron nitride is difficult to make into large structures in experimental environments, the granular, high-temperature-resistant nitride superhard material can be coated on missiles, tanks, burrows, body armor and even kitchen knives.
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